Vitamins

List of vitamins



Last update: 2.5.2017.

Essential nutrients

Supplement Watch - List of vitamins

List of vitamins has not always been the same. New vitamins have been found and some vitamins have ben renamed or classidied as not being vitamins. For example vitamin "P" (flavonoids) is no longer classified as a vitamin.

List of vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, among which beta-carotene is the most important. Vitamin A is important for growth and development, skin and cellular health, for good vision, gene transcription and for the maintenance of the immune system. Vitamin A can be found in two principal forms in foods: Retinol and the carotenes.

Essential for vision Lycopene may lower prostate cancer riskKeeps tissues and skin healthyPlays an important role in bone growthDiets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer riskCarotenoids act as antioxidantsFoods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts

Vitamin B

B vitamins play important roles in cell metabolism. They are all water-soluble and although grouped under the same letter 'B' they are chemically very distinct but are often found in the same foods.

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

Vitamin B1

Thiamine plays a central role in the generation of energy from carbohydrates.

Helps convert food into energyNeeded for healthy skin, hair, muscles and brain.

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin is involved in the energy production for the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the catabolism of fatty acids.

Helps convert food into energyNeeded for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain.

Vitamin B3

Niacin plays an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol.

Helps convert food into energyEssential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain and nervous system.

Vitamin B5

Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates.

Helps convert food into energyHelps make lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin.

Vitamin B6

Serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters.

Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may reduce the risk of heart disease. Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods. Helps make red blood cells Influences cognitive abilities and immune function

Vitamin B7

Plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates.

Helps convert food into energy and synthesize glucose. Helps make and break down some fatty acidsNeeded for healthy bones and hair

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B9 is essential for numerous bodily functions. The human body needs it to synthesize DNA, repair DNA, and methylate DNA as well as to act as a cofactor in certain biological reactions. B9 is especially important during infancy and pregnancy when it is needed in aiding rapid cell division and growth. Fotate is also requited to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia.

Vital for new cell creation. Helps prevent brain and spine birth defects when taken early in pregnancy and thus should be taken regularly by all women of child-bearing age since women may not know they are pregnant in the first weeks of pregnancy. Can lower levels of homocysteine and may reduce heart disease risk. May reduce risk for colon cancer. Offsets breast cancer risk among women who consume alcohol.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. It is a water-soluble vitamin that has an important role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth. Helps make red blood cells

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient. It is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is consumed quickly during infections but it is not certain how vitamin C interacts with the immune system.

Foods rich in vitamin C may lower the risk for some cancers (mouth, esophagus, stomach, and breast). Long-term use of supplemental vitamin C may protect against cataracts. Helps make collagen, a connective tissue that knits together wounds and supports blood vessel walls. Helps make the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Bolsters the immune system.

Vitamin D

There are two types of vitamin D supplements available. Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Vitamin D3 is the type to buy. Vitamin D2 is accepted as a good alternative but D3 is considered far better for several reasons. For example D3 is the form that is produced when UVB light contacts our skin. Also many vitamin D3 is more difficult to overdose than D2. Vitamin D3 has been tested more in clinical trials. Vitamin D3 is more effective at raising and maintaining the vitamin D levels in the bloodstream.

Helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones. Helps form teeth and bones. Supplements can reduce the number of non-spinal fractures.

Vitamin D2

Vitamin D2 is a fungus/yeast-derived product made by radiating a compound from the mold ergot. Vitamin D2 is accepted as a good alternative but D3 is considered better for several reasons.

Benefits for D2 are mainly the same as for D3 but the D3 version is condidered to be the better of these.

Vitamin D3

People synthesize vitamin D3 when UVB light from the sun strikes the skin. Also many fish are good sources of vitamin D3. Although vitamin D2 is accepted as a good alternative but D3 is the type to buy for several reasons For example D3 is the form that is produced when UVB light contacts our skin. Also many vitamin D3 is more difficult to overdose than D2. Vitamin D3 has been tested more in clinical trials. Vitamin D3 is more effective at raising and maintaining the vitamin D levels in the bloodstream.

Helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bonesHelps form teeth and bonesSupplements can reduce the number of non-spinal fractures

Vitamin E

There are ten forms of vitamin E that are divided into two groups: five tocopherols and five tocotrienols. 

Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Protects vitamin A and certain lipids from damage. Diets rich in vitamin E may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Supplements may protect against prostate cancer

α-Tocopherol

α-Tocopherol is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant but the importance of the antioxidant properties of this molecule are not clear.

Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cellsProtects vitamin A and certain lipids from damageDiets rich in vitamin E may help prevent Alzheimer’s diseaseSupplements may protect against prostate cancer

Tocotrienols

There has been very little studies in tocotrienols compared to tocopherols. Some studies have indicate that tocotrienols could have a role in protecting neurons from damage.

Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cellsProtects vitamin A and certain lipids from damageDiets rich in vitamin E may help prevent Alzheimer’s diseaseSupplements may protect against prostate cancer

Vitamin K

Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot. It prevents excessive bleeding. Vitamin K is a group of compounds of which the most important are K1 and K2. Vitamin K1 is the form that is mainly used as a supplement but recently many people have looked into vitamin K2 to treat e.g. osteoporosis and steroid-induced bone loss. Research has not yet provided conclusive results i.e. the research is still conflicting BUT there is evidence that using vitamin K2 might help in osteoporosis.

Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clottingMay help prevent hip fractures

Vitamin K1

Vitamin K1 is synthesized by plants. Highest amout of it is found in green leafy vegetables. This is due to production of the K1 being directly linked to photosynthesis. K1 performs the most well known functions of vitamin K, including the production of blood-clotting proteins.

Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clottingMay help prevent hip fractures

Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 is actually a group of vchemical compounds called menaquinones. Menaquinones are abbreviated MK-n, where M stands for menaquinone, the K stands for vitamin K, and the n represents the number of isoprenoid side chain residues. There are several types of K2 vitamins. The most studied are MK-4 and MK-7.

Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clottingMay help prevent hip fractures

Choline is sometimes listed as a vitamin and grouped with the B-vitamins.