Vitamins

VitaminA



Last update: 2.5.2017.

Essential for vision

Supplement Watch - Vitamin A

Other name(s) for Vitamin A

Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. Carotenoids e.g. beta carotene

General information for Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, among which beta-carotene is the most important. Vitamin A is important for growth and development, skin and cellular health, for good vision, gene transcription and for the maintenance of the immune system. Vitamin A can be found in two principal forms in foods: Retinol and the carotenes.

Solubility of Vitamin A

Fat

Take care when supplementing with fat soluble vitamins.

Benefits of Vitamin A

Essential for vision Lycopene may lower prostate cancer riskKeeps tissues and skin healthyPlays an important role in bone growthDiets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer riskCarotenoids act as antioxidantsFoods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts

Deficiency symptoms / disease

Night blindness
Hyperkeratosis
Keratomalacia

Overdose symptoms / disease

Hypervitaminosis A

FDA facts for Vitamin A

(Daily value/Recommended dietary allowance/Adequate intake)

Recommended intakes of nutrients vary by age and gender and are known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs). However, one value for each nutrient, known as the Daily Value (DV), is selected for the labels of dietary supplements and foods. A DV is often, but not always, similar to one's RDA or AI for that nutrient. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine the level of various nutrients in a standard serving of food in relation to their approximate requirement for it. The label actually provides the %DV so that you can see how much (what percentage) a serving of the product contributes to reaching the DV.

Data from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Daily values.

FDA general vitamin facts

FDA Vitamin name: Vitamin A

FDA Vitamin aliases:

FDA Note: Note: Given as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE

FDA Function: Required for normal vision, gene expression, reproduction, embryonic development and immune function.

FDA recommended dietary allowance / adequate intake

For infants from 0 to 6 months: 400*mcg/d (AI).

For infants from 7 to 12 months: 500*mcg/d (AI).

For children from 1 to 3 years: 300mcg/d (RDA).

For children from 4 to 8 years: 400mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 9 to 13 years: 600mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 14 to 18 years: 900mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 19 to 30 years: 900mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 31 to 50 years: 900mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 50 to 70 years: 900mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 70 ears: 900mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 9 to 13 years: 600mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 14 to 18 years: 700mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 19 to 30 years: 700mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 31 to 50 years: 700mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 50 to 70 years: 700mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 70 years: 700mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant under 18 years: 750mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: 770mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: 770mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating under 18 years: 1200mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: 1300mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: 1300mcg/d (RDA).

FDA Upper limit

For infants from 0 to 6 months: 600mcg/d.

For infants from 7 to 12 months: 600mcg/d.

For children from 1 to 3 years: 600mcg/d.

For children from 4 to 8 years: 900mcg/d.

For males from 9 to 13 years: 1700mcg/d.

For males from 14 to 18 years: 2800mcg/d.

For males from 19 to 30 years: 3000mcg/d.

For males from 31 to 50 years: 3000mcg/d.

For males from 50 to 70 years: 3000mcg/d.

For males from 70 ears: 3000mcg/d.

For females from 9 to 13 years: 1700mcg/d.

For females from 14 to 18 years: 2800mcg/d.

For females from 19 to 30 years: 3000mcg/d.

For females from 31 to 50 years: 3000mcg/d.

For females from 50 to 70 years: 3000mcg/d.

For females from 70 years: 3000mcg/d.

For pregnant under 18 years: 2800mcg/d.

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: 3000mcg/d.

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: 3000mcg/d.

For lactating under 18 years: 2800mcg/d.

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: 3000mcg/d.

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: 3000mcg/d.

Food sources for Vitamin A

Liver

Orange

Leafy vegetables

Carrots

Pumpkin

Spinach

Fish

Milk

Swiss cheese

Retinoids: beef, liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese

Beta carotene: sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens

External links

Wikipedia-Vitamin A MedlinePlus-Vitamin A