Vitamins

VitaminB12



Last update: 2.5.2017.

Essential in the production of blood cells in bone marrow

Supplement Watch - Vitamin B12

Other name(s) for Vitamin B12

Cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin

General information for Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. It is a water-soluble vitamin that has an important role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

Solubility of Vitamin B12

Water

All B vitamins are water soluble.

Benefits of Vitamin B12

Aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth. Helps make red blood cells

Deficiency symptoms / disease

Megaloblastic anemia that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production. This can be avoided is Folic acid is supplemented in the absence of vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage to the rain and nervous system and deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis. Slightly lower than normal can cause a range of symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and poor memory.

Overdose symptoms / disease

Since Vitamin B12 is water soluble the toxicity is low.

FDA information for Vitamin B12

(Daily value/Recommended dietary allowance/Adequate intake)

Recommended intakes of nutrients vary by age and gender and are known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs). However, one value for each nutrient, known as the Daily Value (DV), is selected for the labels of dietary supplements and foods. A DV is often, but not always, similar to one's RDA or AI for that nutrient. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine the level of various nutrients in a standard serving of food in relation to their approximate requirement for it. The label actually provides the %DV so that you can see how much (what percentage) a serving of the product contributes to reaching the DV.

Data from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Daily values.

FDA general vitamin facts

FDA Vitamin name: Vitamin B12

FDA Vitamin aliases: Cobalamin

FDA Note:

FDA Function: Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; prevents megaloblastic anemia.

FDA recommended dietary allowance / adequate intake

For infants from 0 to 6 months: 0.4*mcg/d (AI).

For infants from 7 to 12 months: 0.5*mcg/d (AI).

For children from 1 to 3 years: 0.9mcg/d (RDA).

For children from 4 to 8 years: 1.2mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 9 to 13 years: 1.8mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 14 to 18 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 19 to 30 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 31 to 50 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 50 to 70 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For males from 70 ears: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 9 to 13 years: 1.8mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 14 to 18 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 19 to 30 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 31 to 50 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 50 to 70 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For females from 70 years: 2.4mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant under 18 years: 2.6mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: 2.6mcg/d (RDA).

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: 2.6mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating under 18 years: 2.8mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: 2.8mcg/d (RDA).

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: 2.8mcg/d (RDA).

FDA Upper limit

For infants from 0 to 6 months: NDmg/d.

For infants from 7 to 12 months: NDmg/d.

For children from 1 to 3 years: NDmg/d.

For children from 4 to 8 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 9 to 13 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 14 to 18 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 19 to 30 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 31 to 50 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 50 to 70 years: NDmg/d.

For males from 70 ears: NDmg/d.

For females from 9 to 13 years: NDmg/d.

For females from 14 to 18 years: NDmg/d.

For females from 19 to 30 years: NDmg/d.

For females from 31 to 50 years: NDmg/d.

For females from 50 to 70 years: NDmg/d.

For females from 70 years: NDmg/d.

For pregnant under 18 years: NDmg/d.

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: NDmg/d.

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: NDmg/d.

For lactating under 18 years: NDmg/d.

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: NDmg/d.

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: NDmg/d.

Food sources for Vitamin B12

Shellfish

Liver

Mackarel

Crustaceans

Red meat

Low fat dairy products

Swiss cheese

Chicken eggs

External links

Wikipedia-Cobalamin Wikipedia-Cyanocobalamin MedlinePlus-Vitamin B