Vitamins

Vitamin K



Last update: 2.5.2017.

Vitamin K

Supplement Watch - Vitamin K

Other name(s) for Vitamin K

Phylloquinone (K1), menaquinones (K2)

General information for Vitamin K

Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot. It prevents excessive bleeding. Vitamin K is a group of compounds of which the most important are K1 and K2. Vitamin K1 is the form that is mainly used as a supplement but recently many people have looked into vitamin K2 to treat e.g. osteoporosis and steroid-induced bone loss. Research has not yet provided conclusive results i.e. the research is still conflicting BUT there is evidence that using vitamin K2 might help in osteoporosis.

Solubility of Vitamin K

Fat

Take care when supplementing with fat soluble vitamins.

Benefits of Vitamin K

Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clottingMay help prevent hip fractures

Deficiency symptoms / disease

Deficiency is rare in healthy adults.
Newborn infants are at an increased risk of deficiency.
People who suffer from certain medical conditions e.g. liver damage/disease, inflammatory bowel diseases or cystic fibrosis have increased risk for vitamin K deficiency.
People on strict diets can also have deficiency. This includes also e.g. bulimics.

K1 deficiency symptoms include
anemia
bleeding of the gums or nose
Females can have heavy menstrual bleeding.

K2 deficiency is linked to
osteoporosis
coronary heart disease
aortic calcification
general mortality.

Overdose symptoms / disease

No known toxicity is associated with high doses of K1 or K1 forms of vitamin K. For this reason no tolerable upper intake level has been set however allergic reaction from supplementation is possible.

FDA information for Vitamin K

(Daily value/Recommended dietary allowance/Adequate intake)

Recommended intakes of nutrients vary by age and gender and are known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs). However, one value for each nutrient, known as the Daily Value (DV), is selected for the labels of dietary supplements and foods. A DV is often, but not always, similar to one's RDA or AI for that nutrient. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine the level of various nutrients in a standard serving of food in relation to their approximate requirement for it. The label actually provides the %DV so that you can see how much (what percentage) a serving of the product contributes to reaching the DV.

Data from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Daily values.

FDA general vitamin facts

FDA Vitamin name: Vitamin K

FDA Vitamin aliases:

FDA Note:

FDA Function: Coenzyme during the synthesis of many proteins involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism.

FDA recommended dietary allowance / adequate intake

For infants from 0 to 6 months: 2.0*mcg/d (AI).

For infants from 7 to 12 months: 2.5*mcg/d (AI).

For children from 1 to 3 years: 30*mcg/d (AI).

For children from 4 to 8 years: 55*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 9 to 13 years: 60*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 14 to 18 years: 75*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 19 to 30 years: 120*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 31 to 50 years: 120*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 50 to 70 years: 120*mcg/d (AI).

For males from 70 ears: 120*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 9 to 13 years: 60*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 14 to 18 years: 75*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 19 to 30 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 31 to 50 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 50 to 70 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For females from 70 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For pregnant under 18 years: 75*mcg/d (AI).

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For lactating under 18 years: 75*mcg/d (AI).

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: 90*mcg/d (AI).

FDA Upper limit

For infants from 0 to 6 months: NDmcg/d.

For infants from 7 to 12 months: NDmcg/d.

For children from 1 to 3 years: NDmcg/d.

For children from 4 to 8 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 9 to 13 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 14 to 18 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 19 to 30 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 31 to 50 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 50 to 70 years: NDmcg/d.

For males from 70 ears: NDmcg/d.

For females from 9 to 13 years: NDmcg/d.

For females from 14 to 18 years: NDmcg/d.

For females from 19 to 30 years: NDmcg/d.

For females from 31 to 50 years: NDmcg/d.

For females from 50 to 70 years: NDmcg/d.

For females from 70 years: NDmcg/d.

For pregnant under 18 years: NDmcg/d.

For pregnant from 19 to 30 years: NDmcg/d.

For pregnant from 31 to 50 years: NDmcg/d.

For lactating under 18 years: NDmcg/d.

For lactating from 19 to 30 years: NDmcg/d.

For lactating from 31 to 50 years: NDmcg/d.

Food sources for Vitamin K

Dried basil

Cooked kale

Spring Onions

Cooked brussels sprouts

Chili powder and other hot spices

Cooked asparagus

Cucumber

Cooked soybeans

Olive oil

Prunes

External links

Wikipedia-Vitamin K MedlinePlus-Vitamin K